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What is CBDA?

What is CBDA? Mother of all Cannabinoids

What is CBDA?

All of the major cannabinoids present in cannabis and hemp first develop as “the mother of all cannabinoids,” cannabigerolic acid (CBG-A) it’s from this compound that all the rest originate..

What is CBDA?

The acidic precursor to CBD in marijuana is Cannabidiolic acid (CBD-A) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. CBD-A can be found in the live or raw form of cannabis. Particularly in the hemp plant and strains bred to cultivate higher CBD levels. CBD-A converts to CBD through thermal decarboxylation, which occurs when cannabis is exposed to heat or sunlight. Heat causes the molecule to lose its acidic carboxyl group. This decarboxylation process happen instantly, such as when the cannabis material is lit and smoked or vaporized, or by slow degradation over time if the plant material is left to sit at room temperature.

Those who want to consume CBD-A, means having to use more uncommon or conventional consumption methods, such as topical creams, tinctures, capsules and joining in on the raw cannabis juice trend.

How does CBD-A work and research behind it:

CBD-A isn’t known to bind directly with the CB1 and CB2 receptors but interacts with the ECS as an inhibitor to the COX-2 enzyme, giving CBD-A the potential to reduce inflammatory activity throughout the body. CBD-A is also thought to enhance the serotonin producing 5-HT receptor. This particular interaction could possibly make CBD-A, a primary contributor to the antiemetic effects of cannabis.

CBD-A is widely considered to be a key constituent in the medicinal spectrum of cannabis and the multitude of therapeutic applications it may offer. Normally, CBD-A and the other acidic forms of cannabinoids are not considered to be pharmacologically active until they’ve been decarboxylated. This is because they don’t affect the body’s endocannabinoid system in the same way that their decarboxylated forms do. As a result, most research has focused on the effects of CBD and THC, rather than CBD-A and THC-A.

But new research is beginning to challenge this idea.

Researchers noticed in 2008 that the molecular structure of CBD-A closely resembled that of other common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The team then investigated the potential of CBD-A to act as an anti-inflammatory agent and found that CBD-A demonstrated the same COX-2 inhibitor behavior that enables NSAIDs to tackle inflammation.

A 2013 study from scientists in Guelph, Canada, found that CBD-A was a thousand times more powerful also CBD-A is also thought to be a powerful treatment for nausea and anxiety.

CBD is known to bind to a specific serotonin receptor linked to anti-nausea and anti-anxiety effects when administered alongside low-doses of the traditional anti-nausea drug for chemotherapy patients, ondansetron (OND). CBD-A shows promise as an anticonvulsant, anti-nausea and vomiting agent, analgesic and anti-inflammatory. CBDA may also have antibacterial, antioxidant and cancer preventing properties.

A September 2012 study researched CBD-A as a possible anti-cancer agent. Another study February 2013, the antiemetic effects of CBD-A was the subject. In January 2017study suggested CBD-A may have application in the treatment of aggressive breast cancer.

CBDA Benefits and Medical Use

However despite its demonstrated therapeutic potential, CBD-A has not normally been considered as a viable clinical treatment. Naturally, it’s quite an unstable compound because at room temperature gradual decarboxylation. Because of this it wasn’t considered a viable option for clinical treatment.

New research from Dr Raphael Mechoulam, the cannabis scientist who first synthesized THC and CBD may have broken down that barrier. While speaking at the 2019 CannMed conference in California, Dr Mechoulam announced that his research team has found a way to transform the unstable CBD-A into a more stable compound which retains the therapeutic potential.

“We have taken the unstable acid molecules of the cannabis plant and synthesized them to provide a stable, consistent basis for researching new therapies across a wide range of medical needs – from central nervous system disorders to inflammation and many more,” Mechoulam stated. 

Mechoulam and his research team worked to stabilize the CBD-A, they found by converting it into a methyl ester derivative (known as cannabidiolic acid methyl ester or HU-580). By testing the new compound in an animal model for depression, the researchers confirmed that compound still retains its ability to reduce anxiety behaviors.

What is CBDA?

Synthesis of cannabidiolic acid metal ester, HU-580 (right) from cannabidiolic acid, CBD-A (left)

“In addition, we have provided several delivery mechanisms including tablets, topical applications and others to facilitate several approaches,” stated Mechoulam. Also added “Our work is a catalyst for the development of potential new therapies from a source long thought to have huge potential.”

The discovery was made by an international collaboration of scientists from several universities in Israel, Canada, and the United States, a topical cream manufacturer, a testing lab, and the start-up company EPM.

Which has now opened its intellectual property portfolio to the healthcare industry for licensing partnerships, in the hopes of attracting further investment. The company hopes that the compound will begin Phase 1 FDA clinical trials within the next six to twelve months. On average the time for a drug to gain FDA approval is 12 years.

If you are interested in getting your medical marijuana card and / or growing legal marijuana follow this link

The Best Way to Store Marijuana

The Best Way to Store Marijuana

When it comes to storing your weed, you have several different options.

The Best Way to Store Marijuana

What to do post-harvest cannabis research is extremely limited even with all the grow companies. There is little to no peer-reviewed scientific evidence confirming the best temperatures, humidity levels, and methods of storing your weed. I am sure you have heard a lot from cannabis enthusiasts and storage companies state what they think is the  best practices, the truth is that those recommendations have yet to be substantiated by any scientific evidence. We do know that four things will affect your marijuana: Light, Temperature, Humidity and air. Temperature changed only the speed and light changed both the speed and stoichiometry of this conversion.

Out of everything we have read the best way to store your weed is to keep it in an airtight glass container is the best,  a dark location and temperatures between 60-70 degrees Fahrenheit and at 62% humidity. 

Best Containers To Store Your Weed In

Glass Jar with Airtight Seal

When it comes to cannabis storage, Mason jar is the most popular and effective methods  to use. They’re airtight, and glass is non-porous, and solid which makes them perfect for keeping in aromas and flavor while preventing your delicate buds from getting damaged while storing them. Choose the right size jar is just as important. Buds should loosely fill three-quarters of the jar to prevent trapping extra air and humidity. Remember too much air is bad.  Create a tight seal you could consider purchasing an affordable vacuum sealer to remove even more air. Light is not good, so store your container in a dark place to keep your bud tasting fresher, longer. 

Opaque or Dark-Colored Glass Containers

You could go the extra mile you can purchase tinted or opaque glass jars or make your own by using black duct tape to the exterior of a glass container. Preventing light exposure and temperature is key in maintaining the freshness of your cannabis. Some people prefer a clear jar in a dark location, lock box or wrapped in blankets. 

Correctly Storing Medical Marijuana

How Long Does Weed Stay Fresh?

The study stated that “carefully prepared herbal or resin cannabis or extracts are reasonably stable for 1 to 2 years if stored in the dark at room temperature.” As weed becomes old and dry, the THC degrades to CBN, resulting in less potent cannabis. Terpenes also degrade, which can make your herb taste stale and lose its nuanced aroma. If the environment is to  warm and wet, cannabis may grow mold that can be harmful if consumed. So please keep your health in mind never smoke weed that has mold on it.

Freshness should you Freeze or not to Freeze?

You will find people on both sides of this fence. Some strongly caution against it, warning that freezing your flower will cause the trichomes to become brittle and break off, resulting in less potent flower.

The trichomes that do break off will likely end up in the kief chamber of a grinder or at the bottom of the jar to be collected later. While freezing can cause brittleness, damage can be avoided with ease by allowing cannabis to come to room temperature before handling. 

The study at the beginning of the page, researchers analyzed six different high-potency cannabis products over a period of four years. They stored these cannabis samples at different temperatures and found that freezing was “the best storage condition to avoid the reduction of the cannabinoids content over time.” Freezing is not be necessary, depending on how long you plan to store your weed.

What to Avoid When Storing Your Weed

Remember, the best way to store weed is to protect it from air, light, heat, and humidity. This should keep your weed fresh, potent, and flavorful.

Grow Your Own Weed Legal

Macronutrients Medical Marijuana

Marijuana Needs Nutrients to Grow

Marijuana needs macronutrients to grow:

Macronutrients Medical Marijuana

Macronutrients are the elements necessary for your plants to grow large properly. The most heavily required macronutrients for all plants are (NPK):

    Nitrogen– Plays a critical role in photosynthesis as it facilitates the production of chlorophyll and amino acids. A nitrogen deficiency is identifiable when the cannabis leaves begin to turn a pale yellow and eventually droop as the plant dies.

    Phosphorus– Especially important in the process of photosynthesis, a cannabis plant’s metabolism, and the ability for the plant to absorb nutrients. A phosphorous deficiency makes plants more vulnerable to pathogens and is identified by leaf discoloration from green to a purple-reddish hue.

    Potassium – Helps plants grow earlier, fight disease better, and use water more efficiently. Plants malnourished in potassium will show this deficiency with yellowing leaves. However, a potassium deficiency distinguishes itself through the location of the yellowing; yellowing begins at the leaf’s edges.

In lesser quantities, cannabis plants also require secondary nutrients:

    Calcium – Better enables plants to absorb other nutrients, maintain proper cell structure, and facilitate photosynthesis.

    Magnesium – Plays a vital role in the creation of chlorophyll, making it essential in a plant’s ability to photosynthesize.

    Sulfur– Aids in the development of strong roots, chlorophyll, and plant proteins during the cannabis plant’s vegetative stage.

When your purchasing nutrients, you should see an NPK ratio listed will always be listed in the order of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

These three are the most important for healthy growth, though the ratio will change as your plants develop.

Vegetative stage, a ratio of 3-1-2 is recommended, though there are always variations others have success with. The most important thing is that the nitrogen content is higher than phosphorus and ÅÅ potassium. Higher nitrogen content is required for photosynthesis, a necessary process for the development of the plant during the vegetative stage.

Flowering stage, you’ll need to lower the nitrogen content and raise the levels of phosphorus and potassium. While it varies by specific strain, we recommend a ratio of 1-4-5, though others seem to have success with slightly different ratios as long as the nitrogen content has been significantly reduced.

The secondary nutrients calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, all are required in lesser amounts for healthy growth. These are typically provided by the soil, so it’s important to adjust if you’re growing with hydroponics.

Micronutrients for Growing 

Micronutrients are important for growth, but they’re not nearly as crucial as NPK and are required in much smaller amounts. Still, if your plants lack these elements they may become unhealthy. Necessary micronutrients include:







    BoronPlants typically aren’t deficient in these nutrients unless other factors have occurred, such as a pH imbalance.

Soil vs. Hydroponic Nutrients

Whether you’re growing in soil or hydroponically will determine the right kind of nutrients you’ll need to use. Nutrient solutions vary, and using the wrong kind can damage your plants.

Soil Nutrients

While chemical fertilizers may be tempting, they diminish the soil quality over time and are not good for your soil in the long-run. We recommend using organic fertilizers in your grow because they’ll produce a better tasting and healthier plant.

You can either purchase pre-made organic fertilizer mixes or get your hands on the necessary components and add them yourself. If you’re still new to growing cannabis, using an already-made mixture from the store may be your best option because you won’t have to worry about ratios and application methods and can instead just fertilize your plants as directed.

If you want to go the DIY route, some options are:

    Compost for N-P-K, though nailing the right ratio can be difficult. Compost is a great way to prevent wasting food, as you can add leftovers to your compost bin and let it work its own magic over time. Eggshells, fruit and veggie scraps, and coffee grounds are all great additions. If you have chickens, chicken manure is also a great source of N-P-K, but you’ll need to properly compost it lest you burn or kill your precious crops.

    Fish Meal has a high nitrogen content with lower levels of phosphorus and potassium. It’s a dependable source of nitrogen, though it may attract predators.

    Guano (bat feces) is good for nitrogen and phosphorous. It helps enrich the soil, improve drainage, and even acts as a natural fungicide. Pay attention to the source if you’re going to use guano, as some unethical practices of harvesting have posed a major threat to bats.

Hydroponic Nutrients

Without soil, the addition of nutrients is more crucial to grow healthy plants. They will still require the same necessary nutrients as if they were grown in soil, they’ll just need you to provide them in a consistent way.

One benefit of growing hydroponically is the ability to control the type of nutrients and the portions given. Just make sure your nutrient mix does not contain organic matter, as this can harm your plants and clog the system.

Healthy soil typically provides the necessary micronutrients for cannabis plants without extra supplementation, but in hydroponic growing systems, micronutrients will need to be added. Make sure your nutrient mix has all the components for healthy plants included to prevent any deficiencies.

How Cannabis Absorbs And Transports Nutrients

How plants absorb NPK

Nutrients are absorbed in the roots through osmosis. In plants, osmosis refers to the transfer of ions from water through the plant’s cell wall and into the cell. This osmotic pressure—the movement of nutrient ions during osmosis—is a smart process. Osmotic pressure moves according to the concentration of nutrients on each side, from the side with the highest concentration of ions to the one with the lowest.

For example, when the cannabis plant uses phosphorus, the concentration of that ion is lower on the plant cell side than it is on the waterside. Osmotic pressure then enables the plant to absorb phosphorus from the water. If the concentration of phosphorus is the same inside of the plant cell as it is in the water, nothing happens. There is no osmotic pressure. However, if there are more ions in the plant cell than there are in the water, the phosphorous will transfer to the water to create balance, causing a phosphorous deficiency.

Once the nutrients are absorbed by the roots into the plant cells, they must move upward through the plant to get their work done. The pressure created by salts and oxygen present in the water as well as the leaves’ pores enable the nutrients to move through the cannabis plant.

There are factors that can slow or stop the absorption and movement of nutrients. 

If the humidity is too high, the leaves will struggle to create the right amount of pressure through evaporation, and the plant will absorb fewer nutrients. If it is too hot, too much water may evaporate, and the plant will lose nutrients as a result of this excess evaporation. This is why keeping cannabis at the right temperature is so important. Reducing the plant’s sweating allows it to use the nutrients you’ve worked so hard to provide it.

The materials you feed your plants with are converted into energy and the nutrients needed to create new plant cells and maintain existing ones. The type of plant cells created depends on the stage of growth the plant is in; hence the different N-P-K ratios for each phase of cannabis growth.

Final Tips

The biggest factor in deciding the best nutrients for growing weed will depend on whether you’re growing in soil or hydroponically, so sort that out before picking up goodies for your plant. The stage your plants are in is also crucial to pay attention to, as plants in the vegetative stage need high levels of certain nutrients while requiring smaller amounts in the flowering stage.

Your exact method will depend on many factors, such as growing medium, level of experience, and whether you want to be more in control of the process or just get a pre-made solution that will take care of it. Whatever you decide, the bottom line is that you’ll probably need to do some experimenting before nailing the perfect nutrient solution, and that’s okay.

Medical Marijuana Seedling to Flowering

From Seedling to Flowering

When Growing Weed Indoors:
From Seedling to Flowering

Medical Marijuana Seedling to Flowering

What to do After Your Seed Sprouts

How do you care for your plants through their different stages of growth? Cannabis plants will go through a seedling, vegetative, and flowering stage. Each stage is unique, so it is crucial to understand each part of the growth cycle to produce healthy plants.

Your cannabis seeds have successfully sprouted, time to be planted in your chosen medium. Just a few millimeters below the surface of your medium. Your little plant babies are delicate and easily damaged. So handle them with care. Plant them with the roots facing downwards as an easy way to give them stability.

The Seedling Stage

In this stage, cannabis in the seedling stage does not require intense lighting setup. Compact fluorescent lights or LEDs will work. The optimal light cycle for seedlings is 18 hours on and six hours off.

Remember seedlings are tiny and fragile, so you should water them accordingly. Major Rookie move is overwatering your seedlings that can wreak havoc on your whole operation. The temperature of the room you have set up to grow stays between 68 and 77 degrees known as the sweet spot. Important at this stage is humidity and some growers may use humidity domes to keep the seedlings in their comfort zone.

Seedlings may be managed in small containers later transplant them to their permanent container during the vegetative stage is common. This stage normally last about two to three weeks.

Vegetative State

This stage is where growing gets exciting. The vegetative stage is when the plants have developed strong roots and leaves. If you are transplanting them into their bigger containers be careful. In this stage you will see rapid growth.

In this plant growth cycle you may see a series where new leaves pop up frequently, usually stopping at around 10 leaves. Branches may even start to develop, and expand in new directions. Space your plants according to their expected growth depending on if you choose indica, sativa, or hybrid. The vegetative stage, is where you can begin to train your plants by pinching or topping them, which typically ends up increasing your yields.

The more sunlight your plants have they will stay in the vegetative stage longer. Growing indoors allows you complete control on how long they stay in this stage. If you want them to stay in the vegetative stage and not flower, you can keep them in the same light cycle as the seedling stage (18 hours on, six hours off). If space is an issue, be careful how long you keep your plants in the vegetative stage. The longer they are kept without flowering, the larger the plants will become. Typically plants stay in this stage from three to 16 weeks.

Keep the Males Away

Very Important stage when moving to the flowering stage, be sure to determine if you have any male plants in the mix. If you do; you’ll want to throw them out because they will try to pollinate your plants, forcing the females to produce seeds. You’re trying to get them to flower, not go to seed.

Please refer back to the "Difference between male and female cannabis" Blog if you need too.

Female plants have pointy green calyxes, tear-shaped flowers that grow little white pistils.

Males will not have this characteristic and instead will have small pockets filled with pollen.

Make sure you separate any males from your bunch before the pockets of pollen burst.

Feminized cannabis seeds should be used if you don’t want to deal with separating the male plants out.

Flowering Stage

If you have made it this far pat yourself on the back. The final stage begins in flowering when you cut back on the light, reducing it to around 10-12 hours per day. When you adjust the light, plants will sometimes have a growth spurt as they anticipate the coming of winter. Be sure to have enough space.

When your plants begin to develop resiny buds. It is going to require more nutrients. It’s important to not abruptly make changes to your schedule, but instead, ease from using growing to flowering nutrients over the course of a week or so.

Normally around the third or fourth week of flowering, your plants will stop growing altogether. Now they can focus all of their energy on making dense, aromatic buds loaded with trichomes.

Harvest time will vary, but somewhere between week six and eight is a good time to prepare. Determining harvest time by looking at the pistils and trichomes on your plants.

(Don’t rely on number of weeks to know when you should harvest, too many factors are at play). The pistils, or tiny hairs, should change from white to yellow until they are finally brown. This will vary slightly depending on the strain you are growing. A heavily-magnified item such as a jeweler’s loupe can be used to zoom in to the tiny appendages of your trichomes. The color is extremely important! 

Clear trichomes mean the plant is not ready.

Milky means they are at peak THC levels.

Amber means they are beginning to decrease in THC levels.

Tips For Successful Indoor Growth

Follow directions as labeled on your nutrients and check for specific variations in growth for the strain you plan to harvest. Don’t prune your plants after a few weeks into the flowering stage as it can throw off their hormonal processes. It’s important to stick to your light regimen precisely, as exposing your plants to light during their typical cycle of darkness can mess up the flowering stage. If you can’t stop yourself from peeking at your plants during their “night”, you’re going to hurt your yield.

Interested in Growing Legal Medical Marijuana?

We offer the standard low $150 Medical Marijuana card in Missouri. Check out our Medical Marijuana Grower's page to meet with our Doctor about getting a card.

Grow Weed Indoors Correctly

Grow Weed Indoors Correctly

Grow Weed Indoors Correctly

Grow Weed Indoors Correctly 

Growing weed indoors correctly is a multi part blog series that covers how to properly and effectively grow Medical Marijuana once you receive your Grower's Card

How to pick Your Space, Choosing Your Lights

First Step To Growing Cannabis Is Setting Up Your Grow Space:

You can not learn how to grow weed indoors in a day. It’s a process which requires you to take time, energy and money to set up properly. In addition; the amount of information available on the web on the subject of growing weed can be overwhelming and convoluted.

Picking Your Space:

Growing weed indoors means you control the space and control climate. It will take time to nail your method, so you can maximize your harvest and reap the benefits.

You can begin growing in a small closet, a basement, or even a bedroom that doesn’t get much attention. Make sure you consider your options fully, because there are a few things you need to keep in mind when choosing the right space.


If you’re just learning how to grow weed, Start small you don’t need to go all out for your first time. In fact, you will save yourself a lot of stress. You can always expand your space to accommodate more in the future. Like any plant, marijuana is susceptible to pests and conditions that can effectively wipe out your crop. Losing a couple of plants will be less painful emotionally and financially than losing a whole garden. You’ll need a room with decent height, as cannabis plants love to double or even triple in size.


Marijuana plants can be picky, and if you aren’t growing in a temperature they thrive in, the plants will become stressed out. Remember depending on the lights you add to the setup may increase your temperature as well.


Ideally, fresh air from outside is the best option. You can choose a room that offers easy access to a window or an adjacent room you can cycle air through. As you start to expand your operation, you will want to invest in a proper ventilation setup, but that won’t be necessary if you’re just learning how to grow weed. 


Your plants will be exposed to a light cycle, and preventing light leaks is imperative to proper flowering. Therefore, you must choose a space that can easily seal away light.

Discretion and Convenience:

Our state law in Missouri, requires to keep your cannabis in a locked-away area. Since lighting is a big issue You don’t want every person who enters your home to know you are cultivating cannabis.

Choosing Your Lights to Grow Weed Indoors

The lighting you choose for your indoor weed operation is going to make or break your setup. It’s important to choose the best quality possible. 

Grow Medical Marijuana Indoors Light
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lights

Are known to get very hot and usually require an exhaust fan to keep the temperature under control.

Metal Halide (MH)

These produce a soft, bluish light that vegetative plants can’t get enough of. Therefore, the light can be used throughout the whole harvest, including the flowering stage.

High-Pressure Sodium (HPS)

These lights are more used for the flowering stage because the yellow light encourages high bud production. The lights get the best yields per watt of energy, making them a top choice for efficient production.

If you can’t get yourself a combination of the two, start with HPS lights as they are more energy-efficient.

Fluorescent Grow Lights

A good choice for a shorter room because they can be positioned close to plants because they don’t produce a lot of heat. These lights are easy to get a hold of, produce little heat and use little electricity. Fluorescent lights are not super efficient for growing weed since their light can’t travel too far down into the plants, though. They are affordable and don’t require a ventilation system.

LED Grow Lights

For small harvests, or for people just learning how to grow weed, they can be a good choice without any complications. LED lights tend to use less electricity and run cooler, allowing growers to sometimes skip a ventilation system altogether. They’re easy to set up, and just need to be plugged into the wall and hung over the plants. Do some research on the ones you want. They can be a great addition to your setup, but you have to be careful to buy good quality.

If you are serious about growing Medical Marijuana then check out our Medical Marijuana Grower's Card page to set up an appointment with Dr. Sturm. 

Average Grow Period for Cannabis

What’s the Average Grow Period for Cannabis?

Average Grow Period for Sativa, Indica, and Hybrid Strains of Cannabis 

Average Grow Period for Cannabis

Being a cannabis consumer growing your own weed can be one of the most rewarding aspects. It is vital that you know and understand that when it comes to growing all strains aren't created equal.

Sativa, Indica, and hybrid strains all grow differently and have varying degrees of time it takes to flower. Are you aware of the different growing periods for each? It is important to know the average grow period and differences of growing each strain.

The Life Cycle of Cannabis Plants

Once your seeds have been sown and your cannabis plant has become a little baby seedling. After that; it will experience two major stages of life; known as the vegetative stage (when plants are growing) and the flowering stage (where plants are producing buds).

The Seedling stage:

Can last anywhere from 3-6 weeks.

The Vegetative Stage

This is where your plant begins to grow, and grow, producing those big jagged leaves cannabis is famous for.

Did you know a healthy pot plant can grow up to 2 inches in one day if you did everything right. Whether sativa, indica, or hybrid, this is the time when the roots of your cannabis plant continue to expand, and your plant continues to grow larger.

The length of time a plant is in the vegetative stage is completely dependent on its exposure to light. Growing cannabis indoors, means you can manipulate your light cycle, essentially keeping plants in the vegetative state as long as you want. To keep a plant in vegetative without flowering, it

Should receive under 18 hours of light and 6 hours of darkness. The longer your plants stay in a vegetative state, the bigger your plants will get, so you will need space.

Flowering Stage

The flowering stage of cannabis is when your plants start to produce the flowers that will eventually become the buds you harvest. It's also the stage of a cannabis plant occurs after light exposure's reduced. Where cannabis plants will stay in veg forever if they’re kept under light for 18 hours a day, switching the light cycle to 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness will initiate the flowering stage.

On average, cannabis plants will flower for 6-10 weeks and sometimes longer. The length of time plants are in flower depends on the type of cannabis you’re growing as well as the conditions you’re growing in.

The normal grow period for Sativa, Indica, and Hybrid:


Sativa strains of cannabis usually grow: long, tall, and lanky. Secondly; sativa stem is from regions near the equator, where the length of the day rarely changes regardless of what time of year it happens to be. Equal days and equal nights have led sativa strains to grow in short, consistent photoperiods. This simply means that the height of a sativa plant increases during both vegetative and flower periods.

Pure sativa strains can grow to heights of 20 feet due to growing so tall, indoor growers generally stick to indica strains instead. Sativa typically has a shorter vegetative cycle, but once the plant begins to flower it can take up to 10-12 weeks until it is ready for harvest. A pure sativa strain take 16 weeks to finish in flower.

The growing period for pure sativa strains is around six months.


Popular choice for many experienced growers. Indica strains grow short and fat and typically yield more than their tall, lanky sativa counterparts. They are also known to have shorter flowering periods than sativas. Because indicas have a shorter flower period, indoor growers can have more annual cycles. The flowering period for indica strains is typically around 8 weeks. If you’re growing indica, you can expect your plants to be in flower for 8-12 weeks.


Hybrids are a blend of sativa and indica cannabis strains. Also, hybrid cannabis strains are a blend of both indica and sativa, when cultivated they typically take on traits of one or the other. Much like sativa strains, hybrid strains can grow quickly during the vegetative stage. When it comes time to flower however, they may take on the shorter flower periods common to pure indica strains. Typically, hybrid strains will stay in flower for 6-10 weeks until ready for harvest.

Growing indoors you manipulate your environment a bit more. Overall, the average growing period for all types of cannabis, sativa, indica, and hybrids included is around 3-6 months depending on the environment you’re growing in.

To stay updated on the Medical Marijuana Cannabis laws and regulations check out the DHSS website.
If your interested in growing LEGAL medical marijuana, schedule a consultation at our grower's page.

Grow Medical Marijuana

How To Grow Marijuana (weed) Indoors

How To Grow Marijuana (weed) Indoors 

Choosing A Strain and Choosing A Medium

Choosing a strain is one of the most important and fun parts of growing Marijuana, but there is a lot to consider. Those learning how to grow marijuana for the first time must think about the space the cannabis plants will be occupying, the desired effects from the plant, and more. 

Choosing a Strain

The strain that you want to grow will in large part depend on how big the space you chose. If you have a large room with high ceilings, you can get away with most varieties. If you are growing in a more discreet manner you should go for plants that are known to grow short such as indica or hybrids.

Sativa vs Indica Traits

Sativa plants tend to grow tall as they flower. They can handle heat better than indica strains can, but they suffer in the cold. So temperature is a big deal. Their buds grow long and produce a light, uplifting effect.

Indica plants are more likely to be short and compact, taking up less space. Sativa plants, they do not do well in the heat and are best suited in a cold environment. They produce dense buds that offer a heavier, more relaxed effect.

If you don’t want to choose between sativa or indica, you could go for a hybrid. These blend traits from both sativa and indica plants, with one being dominant or just a 50/50 split. With hybrids, it’s possible to have less flowering time as you’d expect with indica, while still achieving the energizing effects of a sativa strain. Hybrids blend features of both plants in many different ways, leaving a lot of options for customizing your growth.

Selecting a Grow Medium

The growing medium is where your plant roots are going to develop and grow.


This one is an obvious choice since it is natural and easy to set up. You need balanced, organic living soil to get the best results. The plants rely on the nutrients in the soil to help them grow.


Soil-less growth is possible, so long as you’re keeping up with feeding nutrients to the plant. With hydroponic grow mediums, users can precisely dose out nutrients to their plants, often resulting in better, healthier yields. Hydroponic systems come in many different mediums, such as clay pellets, rockwool or vermiculite. It’s for this reason that people often use hydroponics for growing clones as well.

Germinating Your Seeds

You’ve selected your strain and in what medium, and it’s now time to get the operation started. Once you have all your ducks in a row, it’s time to germinate cannabis seeds.

Seeds require air, heat, and water to germinate. The simplest and most common method is to use a wet paper towel and a plate or sealable container.

To germinate your seeds, you will need to wet some paper towels with plain water. Get them thoroughly soaked, without water dripping excessively. You do not want the paper towels to just be damp. Then, place the paper towels on the plate or in the container, and carefully place the seeds about an inch away from one another.

Once you’ve laid the seeds out with good distance between them, you can cover them with more wet paper towels. Then, you can place either a bowl or second plate over the plate to create a dark and contained area, or partially seal up your container (leave some airflow) and place it somewhere dark and warm.

The seeds will need to stay somewhere between 70 and 90 degrees to successfully germinate. You will know they are ready when they have sprouted. Expect anywhere from 24 hours to a few days, though some seeds will germinate more rapidly than that. You can periodically add some water to the paper towels if they dry up quickly. If your interested in growing legal marijuana, sign up for it here.

Male Female Cannabis Plant

The Difference Between Male And Female Cannabis Plants

The Difference Between Male And Female Cannabis Plants:

Male Female Cannabis Plant

Cannabis is a dioecious plant, meaning each one is characterized by either “male” or “female” reproductive organs. A normal marijuana seed is 50% male and 50% female, so it can be a crapshoot for growers who are trying to ensure a plant that produces bud. But many growers buy clones or feminized seeds that guarantee their plants will have female reproductive parts. The female plants are more sought after because they grow sensimilla, which are the large, seedless buds that we understand as a weed. While male plants aren’t completely useless.

Gender reveal Of Your Plant:

If you’re working with just regular seeds, you’ll need to determine the sex of your plant to know if it’s capable of growing sensimilla. Your plant will begin to reveal its gender to you somewhere in between its 4 and 6-week birthday, which typically comes towards the end of its vegetative state right before it begins to fully flower. 

Pre-flowers will show signs of which will be clearly male or female. These pre-flowers will appear in between their nodes, which is where leaves and branches come out of the stalk. A male plant’s pre-flower is a pollen sac, which spreads pollen, and the female’s is a stigma, which catches pollen. The pollen sacs are just small, round balls that grow at the nodes. Whereas the stigma looks similar but have little white or pink hairs growing out of them. A female plant’s pre-flowers may look like pollen sacs at first, though they are a bit pointier, so give the plants a good 6 weeks before you decide which ones are useful and which ones are not. The pre-flowers starts before they even begin serving their reproductive purposes, but they are not always easy to recognize to the naked eye. If your plants have really small pre-flowers, may need to use a small magnifying glass to determine whether its a pollen sac or a stigma. 

Male Plants What do I do?

Producing THC the male cannabis plants are essentially useless, so most growers eliminate the majority of their male plants as soon as the stigma pre-flowers show. You will have more room for the female plants that produce resinous buds.

You may want to keep a few male plants around for breeding purposes. As male plants grow, the little balls of pollen will eventually break open and spread pollen. The pollen can then be carried to a female pistillate, pollinating the female flowers.

Genetics are important if you plan on keeping male plants around. They will produce half the genetic makeup of your plants to come, so you want to make sure that they resist disease, mold, and pests. 

Males produce a very soft material that is actually more valuable for hemp fiber than a female’s, whose fibers are much coarser. Male plants can also be used for recreational purposes even though it doesn’t create the classic version of what we understand as weed. Male cannabis also has a light psychoactive factor thanks to the fact that a small number of cannabinoids can be found in their leaves, stems, and pollen sacs, not as potent as the THC-stacked female plants, these cannabinoids can be used to make concentrate oils.

Intersex Plants

Sometimes a female plant will develop both male and female sex organs, rendering it intersex, also referred to as hermaphrodite. Plants can develop both sex organs when they are under tremendous stress because of plant damage, extreme weather, disease outbreak, or malnutrition

A plant that has both stigmas and pollen sacs, or a female plant that produces anthers, as seen in the picture. Both produce pollen, though one contains pollen sacs that will break open like any other male cannabis plant, while the anthers are stamen that are already exposed.

Though it can be a result of simple genetics. Intersex plants are not typically good. So you want to make sure to monitor your growing conditions to avoid extreme stress in your plants. 

CBD molecules

Difference of Cannabinoid Compounds

CBD molecules

Difference of Cannabinoid Compounds

You learned your ABC’s in elementary school, and learned biology in middle school. However when it comes to cannabis industry, and the acronyms; all that goes out the window. There are so many acronyms to learn: THC, CBD, CBG, CBN, CBDA, CBV, and more than 426 chemical entities of which 60+ are cannabinoid compounds. So let’s start with the easy stuff first, and I will try to keep it as simple as possible.

FDA regulations prevent anyone from making any health related claims. The compound cannabidiol is safe, but not all CBD products are created equally. We prefer to educate all of our patients to the best of our abilities. It’s also important to keep in mind that full spectrum CBD oils contain traces of THC; and while it’s not enough to get you high, it may be enough to show up on a drug test.

On the other hand, if you’re looking to experience pure CBD without additional cannabinoids and terpenes, or you need to avoid THC due to sensitivities or drug testing. You’ll want to look for either isolate CBD products or broad spectrum CBD. Broad spectrum is similar to full spectrum in that it contains other cannabinoids and terpenes, but it’s processed to remove all traces of THC. Isolate CBD oil meanwhile, is processed to remove all cannabinoids and terpenes aside from CBD, leaving you with a pure CBD product.

What Is the Endocannabinoid System?

You probably haven’t realized the whole system was named after pot? That’s because the substance cannabinoids come from, it comes from the medical marijuana plant. The word endocannabinoid comes from the roots of “cannabinoid”,meaning “cannabis” and “endogenous”. Which means it is produced naturally inside your body.

The ECS (Endocannabinoid System) itself is made of three parts; the CB1 which is in the central nervous system(brain and nerves of the spinal cord). CB2 which is in the peripheral nervous system (nerves in your extremities), the digestive system, and specialized cells in the immune system. Lastly, enzymes that help break down endocannabinoids and cannabinoids. Receptors in the nervous system and around your body that endocannabinoids and cannabinoids bond with have (at least) two types of cannabinoid receptors. These receptors help regulate a lot of important functions such as:

  • Appetite
  • Digestion
  • Immune function
  • Inflammation, including neuro-inflammation
  • Mood
  • Sleep
  • Reproduction/fertility
  • Motor control
  • Temperature regulation
  • Memory
  • Pain
  • Pleasure/reward
  • Crucial for homeostasis

What is homeostasis?

Homeostasis is your body’s efforts to keep everything in the right zone. It also keeps your internal environment stable and optimal no matter what’s going on in the environment around you.Homeostasis is essential to our health and survival; so when the ECS isn’t working properly, it can cause a lot of health problems for you.

The receptors in CB1 and CB2

So What are Cannabinoids?

Currently there is at least 110 cannabinoids that we know of,with more to be discovered. Studies will continue to reveal more of the complex molecular structures of the cannabis plant.

The ECS has two primary receptors, the CB1 and CB2 as discussed earlier. The CB1 receptor binds primarily to the brain and nervous system, while the CB2 receptor interacts largely with the immune system. The cannabis plant relies on cannabinoids binding to these receptors to produce the multiple potential benefits and effects.

The Role of Receptors and Enzymes

Smoking marijuana, a cannabinoid from the plant attaches to the CB1 receptor in the brain and creates a high. This cannabinoid is called THC, short for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.Your own endocannabinoids that attaches to the same receptor is called anandamide.

What is Anandamide and FAAH enzyme?

Anandamide does have a calming effect. The name “Ananda”, Sanskrit word for bliss. The reason anandamide doesn’t get us high and THC does lies with something called the FAAH enzyme. FAAH’s job is to break down anandamide and other endocannabinoids. It works quickly on the ones your body creates, but it can’t break down THC. Which means THC will stick around for a much longer time and has a much greater effect. In the brain, cannabinoids and endocannabinoids work as neurotransmitters (chemical messengers that deliver information from one cell to the next). Neurotransmitters all interact with a lot of different receptors and thus have a lot of different effects.


Decarboxylation is an essential step in the process of creating CBD hemp oil. It’s also the process by which carbon dioxide and hydrogen are removed from CBDa, transforming it into CBD, THC and CBC. The two main decarboxylation processes are heat and time.​

Cannabinoid Synthesis


While CBD doesn’t exist in the plant; it’s created when CBDA is heated through decarboxylation (a process that converts the non-psychoactive cannabinoids to intoxicating compounds). The “A” in CBDA stands for acid, and is made up of hydrogen and carbon molecules. The best absorption is through oral consumption. These compounds provide unique and synergistic benefits to their heated forms.

Specific to CBDA, the great promise and positive initial results have led to a fair amount of initial research on the compound. The positive signs provided by these studies have been strong enough that many companies are providing either raw extractions or blending these raw extracts with the more common decarboxylated extracts. I.E. raw CBDA formulas, or CBD+CBDA blends. The result is a range of products that provide additional, specific benefits to the user.

A blended product containing raw and activated cannabinoids, as opposed to simply activated cannabinoids, has the potential to unlock an even higher level of the entourage effect. Most companies creating a CBDA-rich product use a low-temperature juicing process to extract these raw compounds. An example, hemp would be cold pressed like a vegetable juice. The resulting liquid/extract is then sold directly or commonly blended with a heated extract. It’s a good idea to keep CBDa refrigerated to prevent it from converting into an activated cannabinoid.

CBDA has had a tendency to be overlooked with CBD getting the attention of medical researchers. In a report published by Green Flower in 2017—a global community of cannabis experts, doctors, scientists, researchers, entrepreneurs and investors—CBDA was linked to potentially treating inflammation and nausea, as well as having anti-cancer properties. However, there are several studies that are currently examining the potential benefits of CBD, as well, including:

CBDA may have side effects that include anxiety, jitteriness, diarrhea, and increased heart rate, and decreased appetite. Also, CBDa can inhibit or potentiate other medications. Please check with your doctor before taking.


Everyone has heard of CBD a plant-based cannabinoid that’s has received a lot of attention from researchers. It does not have any psychoactive properties; the benefit comes without the high of THC. One known function of CBD in the brain is to stop the FAAH enzyme from breaking down anandamide, so the anandamide can have more of an impact. This is why they believe it can help anxiety disorders. Even after the process has been completed, you still won’t get high by taking CBD, as the product is non-psychoactive and does not bind to receptors the same way as THC. CBD is virtually free of THC (less than 0.03 %,) and complete with a full spectrum of other cannabinoids and terpenes.

CBD is also proven to be an effective anxiety reliever, with multiple studies supporting its potential for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Perhaps most famously, CBD also can reduce epileptic seizures and alleviate pain associated with fibromyalgia, arthritis, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, and more.


CBG is less abundant phytocannabinoids that is receiving interest for its pharmacological properties. When CBGA is decarboxylated it turns into CBD, THC, CBG and many others. Here are some studies that have been done on CBG:

Two recent animal studies have shown that CBG can increase appetite in rats, suggesting this phytocannabinoids could be useful in disorders of eating and low body weight.

Another animal study showed that CBG treatment could reduce inflammation in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.

CBG treatment also improved motor function, inflammation and oxidative stress in a rat model of Huntington’s disease and the same was true of a compound derived from CBG called VCE-003.2, which was also effective in a model of multiple sclerosis.

In vitro laboratory studies have shown that CBG decreases cell proliferation and inflammation and increases fat formation in human skin cells, suggesting a potential role in dry skin syndrome. CBG also shows anti-bacterial properties against a number of bacterial strains.

Another study showed CBG decreases human and mouse bladder contractility and this was not via the CB1 or CB2 receptor.


A number of cell-based studies have shown that CBG is anti-tumoral. This has been demonstrated by the ability of CBG to inhibit cancer cell growth and induce programmed cell death in human colon cancer cells, and in breast, prostate and stomach cancer cells, and in a cell line of oral cancer. At least in colon cancer, this may be because of anti-inflammatory effects of CBG. In one in vivo study, CBG treatment was shown to inhibit tumor cell growth in colon cancer in animal models.

Together these studies suggest that there are interesting properties of CBG that could be pursued clinically with CBG either alone, or in combination with other phytocannabinoids, but this compound has not yet been tested as a single compound in humans.

2015 study found CBG potentially effective at treating bladder dysfunction, while a 1990 study found that CBG can lower glaucoma-related pressure. CBG also has neuroprotective properties, may protect against colon cancer, and shows promise as a treatment for irritable bowel disease (IBD). It’s also an appetite stimulant with anti-inflammatory benefits and antibacterial properties.

benefits of cbd

The Many Benefits of CBD

Our last post on CBD described what it is and how it is used. This article will expand on that and describe the many benefits derived from using CBD products.

As we described in the previous post, cannabidiol (CBD) is a component of marijuana without the THC ingredient. THC is what produces the psychoactive effects of marijuana. CBD does not produce these side effects. Instead, CBD can provide therapeutic benefits for many conditions.

9 Conditions that Improve with CBD Use

  1. Autoimmune Diseases

CBD can relieve the pain caused by diseases like fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis. These are illnesses where the body’s nervous system produces spasms and chronic pain. CBD calms those impulses, greatly helping the person better cope with these symptoms. CBD is being researched to see if it can prevent nervous system degeneration.

  1. Inflammation

Inflammatory diseases like arthritis can cause chronic pain, with varying levels of debilitation. The pain can negatively impact your quality of life. People with arthritis and other inflammatory diseases may use prescription or over-the-counter drugs for the pain and stiffness. Studies have revealed that these non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs have negative side effects as well. CBD offers a more natural alternative to the drugs.

The body does not build up a tolerance to CBD, so there’s no need to continue increasing the dosage. This makes it a great substitute for opioids, which can be addicting and cause overdoses.

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  1. Epilepsy

For children suffering from epileptic seizures, CBD’s anti-seizure properties have helped them decrease seizure occurrence by 23 percent. There are many ongoing studies on the use of CBD for epilepsy. It is certainly not a cure for the disease, but it can help some patients reduce or even eliminate the symptoms. It can also decrease the need for other drugs that have serious side effects, like anemia, low platelet levels, liver failure, pancreatitis, allergic reactions and suicidal tendencies.

  1. Cancer

The National Cancer Institute has long promoted the use of Cannabis and its components as a treatment for people with cancer-related symptoms caused by the disease itself or its treatment. Even further, they are conducting several studies that suggest that CBD may actually prevent the development of certain types of cancerous tumors.

CBD also eases nausea and vomiting. This is especially helpful for individuals enduring chemotherapy and other treatments for serious diseases.

  1. Anxiety and Depression

Many Americans deal with anxiety and depression. These can be caused by PTSD, obsessive compulsive disorder, social anxiety, clinical depression and others. CBD can ease the stress and anxiety they suffer from normal everyday life. It can reduce depression by enhancing both serotonergic and glutamate cortical signaling, which are lacking in those suffering from depression.

  1. Heart Health

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Heart disease is the leading cause of death of those in the U.S. A healthy lifestyle and diet are crucial to fighting it. CBD can also help by reducing artery blockage, reducing stress, blood pressure and cholesterol. These factors are all significant contributors to heart disease.

  1. Healthy Weight

Maintaining a healthy weight helps prevent several diseases and ailments. CBD can help maintain health blood sugar, as well as stimulate proteins that help break down fat and increase metabolism.

A healthy appetite is very important when the body is fighting off disease or healing. Because some illnesses greatly decrease the appetite, the healing process is compromised. CBD can help regulate and stimulate the appetite in those patients.

  1. Sleep Disorders

Insomnia and other sleep disorders are very common but can cause mental and physical repercussions in everyday life. Using sleep aids can help short-term, but they can also cause side effects and people can become dependent on them.

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CBD can be a great alternative to sleep aids to improve sleep quality. Because of CBD’s ability to reduce anxiety, as well as help control chronic pain, it can reduce the symptoms of sleep disturbances.

  1. Focus

Even though CBD produces a calming effect that helps reduce stress and anxiety and promotes quality sleep, it also works to increase your focus factor. It does this by allowing more serotonin to flow through your brain. Increased serotonin leads to less anxiety, which improves your level of focus. Lack of focus is often caused by anxiety.

CBD Can Help People AND their Pets

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Research on the potential health benefits of CBD oil is ongoing, so new therapeutic uses for this natural remedy are sure to be discovered.

CBD can also be used to treat symptoms in your pets, like anxiety, excessive barking, separation anxiety, chronic pain, and other maladies.

Results from recent and ongoing studies have suggested that CBD can provide a safe, powerful, natural treatment for many health issues.

Get Quality CBD Products from Arch Advanced Pain Management

After many years, CBD is finally legal in all 50 states. The FDA is even in the process of reviewing it as a medicine.

70% of CBD sold online is mislabeled according to a University of Pennsylvania published study. Unlike many other CBD providers, Arch Advanced Pain Management has carefully selected vendors that subject themselves to independent 3rd party testing of their products at least every three months and publish the results on their websites.

Arch Advanced Pain Management offers CBD products in many forms. We provide holistic pain management that treats the entire patient. We offer several treatment techniques that include rehabilitation, imaging, medications and more.

Contact us to find out more about our methods and get details about CBD and its uses and benefits.